Ozark Zigzag Salamander

Media
A reddish-brown salamander with an orange stripe down its back is curled on a moss-covered rock.
Scientific Name
Plethodon angusticlavius
Family
Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders) in the order Caudata (salamanders)
Description

A small, dark, slender, woodland salamander with a narrow, somewhat lobed mid-dorsal stripe. The dorsal stripe is thin, usually has irregular or wavy edges, and may be yellow, yellow orange, orange, or red. Dark brown or black pigment may invade the dorsal stripe, making it look lobed, or it may cover a large part of the stripe. The dorsal stripe is usually less than ⅓ the width of the body; it is widest near the hind limbs. Sometimes there is no dorsal stripe. The belly has white and black mottling. The sides are dark or brownish gray with some orange or red, and small white flecks. There are 17–19 costal grooves (vertical grooves on the sides of the body).

Similar species: The dorsal stripe of the southern red-backed salamander (P. serratus) is uniform in width, wider, and has serrated (toothed) edges. Its range overlaps but mostly occurs north and east of the Ozark zigzag’s range.

Size

Length: 2¼–4 inches.

Where To Find
Ozark Zig Zag Salamander Distribution Map

Occurs in the south and southwestern portion of the Missouri Ozarks, mainly southwestern counties along the Arkansas border.

Usually occurs in or near caves in the Ozark highlands. It hides in or under rotten logs, under rocks, and under leaf litter in seepages near small streams and on steep hillsides. It seems to prefer cooler and damper habitats than the closely related southern red-backed salamander.

Very small arthropods, including insects, spiders, and other joint-legged invertebrates.

This species was once considered a subspecies of the northern zigzag salamander (P. dorsalis). But the Ozark zigzag salamander is both geographically isolated and genetically divergent from that species, so scientists elevated it to full species status.

Life Cycle

Courtship and breeding may occur in autumn, winter, and early spring. From May through August, females deposit eggs deep underground, in places where accumulated small rocks create many small cavities or in other cool, damp niches. There are 2–5 eggs per clutch. Females remain with the eggs until they hatch. Like all other species of their genus, Ozark zigzag salamanders go through complete development in the egg and hatch as tiny replicas of the adults, less than 1 inch long.

Like other amphibians in our state, this salamander depends on humans to restrain from destroying, degrading, and fragmenting their native habitat. Salamanders are both literally and figuratively voiceless. People who care about their survival must speak up for them when it comes to public policy.

These and other lungless salamanders are integral parts of the caves and forested streams, springs, and seeps they occupy. As predators, they help control the numbers of the insects and other creatures they eat. As prey, the adults, eggs, and young help feed larger predators.

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About Reptiles and Amphibians in Missouri
Missouri’s herptiles comprise 43 amphibians and 75 reptiles. Amphibians, including salamanders, toads, and frogs, are vertebrate animals that spend at least part of their life cycle in water. They usually have moist skin, lack scales or claws, and are ectothermal (cold-blooded), so they do not produce their own body heat the way birds and mammals do. Reptiles, including turtles, lizards, and snakes, are also vertebrates, and most are ectothermal, but unlike amphibians, reptiles have dry skin with scales, the ones with legs have claws, and they do not have to live part of their lives in water.