Eastern Long-Tailed Salamander

Media
Photo of a long-tailed salamander on a rotten log.
Scientific Name
Eurycea longicauda longicauda
Family
Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders) in the order Caudata (salamanders)
Description

A medium-sized salamander with a long tail. It is usually yellow but may vary from greenish yellow to orange yellow. The belly is plain yellow. There are dark brown or black markings and spots along the back and sides. Prominent vertical bars are present on the tail. There are 13 or 14 costal grooves (vertical grooves on the sides of the body).

Similar species: The dark-sided salamander subspecies (Eurycea longicauda melanopleura) has large amounts of dark pigment along the sides, from the head onto the tail, and has larger and more numerous dark spots on the back. The sides are often spotted with white flecks. The vertical bars on the tail may have irregular fine or wavy lines. Ground color varies from yellowish green to yellowish brown. The belly is dull yellow with numerous dark flecks.

Size

Adult length: 4–6¼ inches.

Where To Find
Long-Tailed Salamander Distribution Map

The eastern long-tailed salamander subspecies is restricted to southeastern Missouri but not in the Mississippi Lowlands of the Bootheel. The dark-sided salamander subspecies occurs throughout most of southern and eastern Missouri.

This species usually lives under rocks near streams, springs, and seepages in forested areas. It also occurs in caves. These salamanders are quite agile and can escape predators by using their tails for quick jumps. They also wave their tails to draw a predator’s attention away from the head. The tails easily twist off, allowing the salamander to escape. This species is primarily nocturnal but is sometimes seen on days following heavy rains.

Various small arthropods (insects, spiders, and similar invertebrate animals).

Life Cycle

Courtship occurs in or near springs or cool, rocky creeks between November and early March. Fertilization is internal, and each female may produce up to 60 eggs. These are laid in small clumps or in a single row beneath rocks along the edge of springs or creeks, or in shallow water. The larvae are dark and aquatic and may require more than two months to transform. Then, it may take up to 2 years to reach adulthood.

Because of an ancient, mythical, erroneous belief that associated salamanders with fire, the word “salamander” has became the term for a specialized broiler, something like a huge toaster oven, used for grilling foods in restaurant kitchens.

These and other lungless salamanders are integral parts of the forested streams, springs, and seeps they occupy. As predators, they help control the numbers of the insects and other creatures they eat. As prey, the adults, eggs, and young help feed larger predators.

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About Reptiles and Amphibians in Missouri
Missouri’s herptiles comprise 43 amphibians and 75 reptiles. Amphibians, including salamanders, toads, and frogs, are vertebrate animals that spend at least part of their life cycle in water. They usually have moist skin, lack scales or claws, and are ectothermal (cold-blooded), so they do not produce their own body heat the way birds and mammals do. Reptiles, including turtles, lizards, and snakes, are also vertebrates, and most are ectothermal, but unlike amphibians, reptiles have dry skin with scales, the ones with legs have claws, and they do not have to live part of their lives in water.