Western Smooth Earthsnake

Image of a western smooth earthsnake
Scientific Name
Virginia valeriae elegans
Colubridae (nonvenomous snakes) in the order Squamata (lizards and snakes)

The western smooth earthsnake is a small, slightly stout, plain-colored snake with a conical head. The color is gray to light brown or reddish brown. It has no distinct markings. The belly is plain white or cream-colored.

Similar species: The rough earthsnake (Haldea striatula) is closely related and extremely similar in appearance. Western smooth earthsnakes have relatively smooth scales along the back, 6 labial scales along the upper lip, and 2 scales between the nostrils. Rough earthsnakes have keeled scales along the back (which make them feel rough), 5 labial scales along the upper lip, and a single scale between the nostrils.

Other Common Names
Western Smooth Earth Snake

Length: 7 to 10 inches.

Where To Find
Western Smooth Earthsnake Distribution Map

Statewide except for the northwestern corner. It occurs mainly in the southern half of the state, with scattered populations in the north-central part of the state.

This nondescript little woodland snake lives under rocks on rocky, wooded hillsides and in moist woods It is most often encountered under rocks, in leaf litter, or under other objects. It is most active at night, especially during warm, humid conditions, as it searches for food.

Foods include earthworms and, occasionally, slugs and some soft-bodied insects.

Life Cycle

This species is normally active from April through October. Mating occurs during May and June and possibly in the autumn. Young are born in August through September, and there are from 2 to 14 in a litter. The newborns are about 3–4½ inches long.

Although many people think of an animal’s value only in terms of its economic imprint on human affairs, the science of ecology has shown us that each component of the natural community plays a unique and important role. Valuing nature means valuing even the smallest plants and animals.

These small predators control populations of the animals they consume. As with many other rather small predatory species, earthsnakes can be preyed upon themselves by larger animals, including mammals and predatory birds. Newborns are especially vulnerable.

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Similar Species
About Reptiles and Amphibians in Missouri
Missouri’s herptiles comprise 43 amphibians and 75 reptiles. Amphibians, including salamanders, toads, and frogs, are vertebrate animals that spend at least part of their life cycle in water. They usually have moist skin, lack scales or claws, and are ectothermal (cold-blooded), so they do not produce their own body heat the way birds and mammals do. Reptiles, including turtles, lizards, and snakes, are also vertebrates, and most are ectothermal, but unlike amphibians, reptiles have dry skin with scales, the ones with legs have claws, and they do not have to live part of their lives in water.