Meadow Parsnip

Media
Photo of purple meadow parsnip foliage and flowers
Scientific Name
Thaspium trifoliatum
Family
Apiaceae (carrots)
Description

Much-branched, upright perennial, without hairs. Flowers minute, in compound, flat umbels, dark yellow, rarely purple or brownish purple. The central floret of each umbellet is slightly raised, on a stalk. Blooms April–June. Basal leaves simple, heart-shaped or only once-divided. Stem leaves on long stems (petioles) divided into 3 pointed, egg-shaped, finely toothed leaflets with a rounded base. All leaflets have a very narrow yellowish-white margin, a ready identification characteristic.

Similar species: Our other meadow parsnip species, T. barbinode, lacks the pale borders of the leaves. Golden Alexanders (Zizia spp.) are similar, but they don’t have the middle flower in each umbel slightly raised; instead, that floret is mostly stalkless and recessed. A surer way to distinguish between these genera is to examine the fruits: Those of Thaspium are strongly winged, while those of Zizia are unwinged or only ribbed or slightly winged.

Size
Height: to 2½ feet.
Where To Find
image of Meadow Parsnip distribution map
Scattered nearly statewide, but more common south of the Missouri River.
Grows in mesic to dry upland forests, upland prairies, savannas, glades, ledges and tops of bluffs, and less commonly banks of streams; also old fields, roadsides, and railroads.
Two varieties of meadow parsnip are found in Missouri, with the only difference being the flower color. Thaspium trifoliatum var. flavum, yellow meadow parsnip, has yellow flowers. It is scattered nearly statewide, though more common south of the Missouri River. Var. trifoliatum, purple meadow parsnip, has maroon or purplish flowers. It is uncommon and widely scattered in the Ozark section.
Distinguishing, with certainty, between this plant and the similar-looking golden Alexanders is a bit of a challenge. But people love challenges. Indeed, it is part of our human nature, and being able to identify plants, with certainty, was once a matter of survival.
Bees, butterflies, flies, and other insects collect nectar and pollen from the flowers. Black swallowtails and Missouri woodland (or Ozark) swallowtails use this and other wild carrot-family species as natural food plants for their larvae.
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About Wildflowers, Grasses and Other Nonwoody Plants in Missouri
A very simple way of thinking about the green world is to divide the vascular plants into two groups: woody and nonwoody (or herbaceous). But this is an artificial division; many plant families include some species that are woody and some that are not. The diversity of nonwoody vascular plants is staggering! Think of all the ferns, grasses, sedges, lilies, peas, sunflowers, nightshades, milkweeds, mustards, mints, and mallows — weeds and wildflowers — and many more!