White Avens (Red Root)

Photo of white avens flower and upper stem leaves.
Scientific Name
Geum canadense
Rosaceae (roses)

Branched perennial with stems velvety hairy. Flowers small, with white petals interspersed with green sepals about the same length, and 10 or more stamens. Blooms May–October. Basal leaves long-stemmed, often pinnate (like a feather); stem leaves alternate, usually with 3 leaflets with oblong, lobed, and toothed divisions. Uppermost leaves often undivided, sessile. Stipules occur at all nodes. Fruit a burrlike mass of seeds with pointed receptacles and the numerous protruding dried styles.

Similar species: Spring avens, or early water avens (G. vernum) has yellow or cream-colored flowers, blooms April–June, and is most common in moist places in eastern and southern Missouri. Rough avens (G. laciniatum) has white flowers with the petals mostly shorter than the calyx lobes. It is found only in northern and central Missouri. Prairie smoke (G. triflorum) has large, plumelike fruiting heads. Pale avens (G. virginianum) is rare and scattered in southern Missouri.


Height: 1½ to 2½ feet.

Where To Find
image of White Avens Red Root distribution map


A very common plant in Missouri’s open woods, on hillsides, in valleys and ravines, and along streams. To some people, it a desirable garden plant, though others consider it weedy. It spreads readily from seeds.

The seeds (technically called achenes) are “sticktights” — each has a slender hook that attaches the seed to fur, feathers, and clothing. It is an efficient way for the plant to distribute itself, but it can be tedious to pick them from wool socks after a hike!

A variety of insects visit the flowers for nectar, pollen, or both, often pollinating the plant in the process.

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Similar Species
About Wildflowers, Grasses and Other Nonwoody Plants in Missouri
A very simple way of thinking about the green world is to divide the vascular plants into two groups: woody and nonwoody (or herbaceous). But this is an artificial division; many plant families include some species that are woody and some that are not. The diversity of nonwoody vascular plants is staggering! Think of all the ferns, grasses, sedges, lilies, peas, sunflowers, nightshades, milkweeds, mustards, mints, and mallows — weeds and wildflowers — and many more!