Photo of hellgrammite
Scientific Name
Corydalus cornutus
Corydalidae (dobsonflies and fishflies), in the order Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies)

Hellgrammites are the larvae of eastern dobsonflies. They are aquatic, somewhat flattened, and usually some shade of dark brown, tan, or black. Some people think they look like centipedes. The head is equipped with a pair of large, sharp pincers that can deliver a painful bite. The thorax has 3 pairs of legs, each tipped with a tiny pair of pincers. The segmented abdomen has 8 pairs of pointed, leglike appendages along the sides, each with a cottony or hairy gill tuft at the base. There is a pair of hooked, leglike appendages at the hind tip; these help keep the animal from being swept away in the water current.

The winged adults, called dobsonflies, are large, soft bodied, usually a drab gray, black, or brown, with prominent pincers and long antennae. Wings with conspicuous veins, usually folded down the length of the body when at rest. Pincers (mandibles) of females rather stubby and capable of inflicting a painful bite. Mandibles of males very long, tusklike, and incapable of hurting people due to lack of leverage.

Other Common Names
Eastern Dobsonfly Larva
Larva length: to about 4 inches.
Where To Find
Hellgrammite Distribution Map
Hellgrammites usually inhabit the swiftest sections of large streams and rivers and usually hide under rocks. Adults tend to stay near water and are most often seen in late spring and early summer. They are nocturnal and often attracted to electric lights. Dobsonflies are not venomous and the worst they can do is pinch you hard. These are long-lived insects. The larvae typically live for 2 or 3 years underwater before pupating and becoming winged adults.
The larvae are predaceous and snatch nearly anything that swims or ambles by, including other aquatic insects, small fish, and so on. The adults only live a few days or a week and do not eat during this stage.
This is the only species of dobsonfly in eastern North America. Alderflies, dobsonflies, and fishflies used to be grouped in the order Neuroptera (“nerve-winged insects”) along with the lacewings and some other insects, but scientists have determined they are different enough to be classified in their own order, the Megaloptera (“large-winged insects”).
Life Cycle
Egg masses are laid on branches or rocks next to streams. These masses resemble bird droppings, which protects them from predators. After hatching, the larvae crawl or fall into the water, where they spend the next 2 or 3 years. Once grown, they crawl out of the water, form a cocoon, and overwinter. They emerge in spring as adults and usually only live for a few days after that. The adults focus only on reproduction. The large tusks of the male are used for clasping the female during mating.
The larvae (“devil scratchers” in Ozark dialect) are commonly used by anglers as bait. They should be grasped behind the head, lest they deliver a painful pinch. The enormous, imposing adults are rarely seen, since they are short-lived and nocturnal, but they are an awesome sight.
Most of this insect’s life is spent underwater as a larva that preys upon smaller aquatic invertebrates. Meanwhile, there are plenty of fish that relish these larvae, which explains their hiding under rocks! The adults, once they have reproduced, become food for birds and other animals.
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Similar Species
About Aquatic Invertebrates in Missouri
Missouri's streams, lakes, and other aquatic habitats hold thousands of kinds of invertebrates — worms, freshwater mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, and other animals without backbones. These creatures are vital links in the aquatic food chain, and their presence and numbers tell us a lot about water quality.