Crappie, Black

Black crappie, male in spawning colors, side view photo with black background
Scientific Name
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Centrarchidae (sunfishes) in the order Perciformes (perch-like fishes)

The black crappie is silvery with a color pattern that is mainly irregularly arranged speckles and blotches (not vertical bars). The dorsal fin has 7 or 8 spines. Crappies, as a group, are popular panfish that are deep bodied and strongly compressed laterally (slab sided). The upper jaw is long, reaching well past the middle of eye. The two sections of the dorsal fin (spiny forepart and soft-rayed rear part) are broadly connected, without a notch between. The anal fin is nearly as long and large as the dorsal fin, and it has 6 spines. The upper surface of the head and forward part of the back are strongly concave.

Similar species: White crappie have faint vertical bars instead of irregularly arranged speckles and blotches as the color pattern. They also have 6 dorsal fin spines instead of 7 or 8.


Total length: 9-10 inches (seldom exceeds 14 inches); weight: to about 4 pounds.

Where To Find
image of Black Crappie Distribution Map

Widespread but sporadic. Most prevalent in large Ozark reservoirs, upper Mississippi River navigation pools, and natural lakes and borrow pits of the Bootheel lowlands. Least abundant in extreme south-central Missouri.

Like the white crappie, the black crappie occupies open water with submerged timber or aquatic vegetation in standing water bodies and slow-flowing backwaters of large rivers. However, the black crappie is less tolerant of turbid water and siltation.

Feeds primarily on small fish such as minnows and young shad, plus aquatic insects and small crustaceans.

Common game species; less important than white crappie in most waters because it is generally not as abundant.

Life Cycle

In Missouri, black crappie spawn from about mid-April to early June, when water temperatures exceed 56 F. They spawn in coves protected from wave action and require silt-free substrates.Female black crappie may spawn with several males and can produce eggs several times during the spawning period. The black crappie grows more slowly in length than the white crappie, but it is generally heavier at any given length. It usually lives 4 years; occasionally it will live 8 years or more.

Crappie are feisty, tasty, and a favorite of anglers.

As a predator, this fish controls populations of prey species. As with all fish, eggs and young individuals are commonly eaten by many other species.

Media Gallery
Similar Species

Where to See Species

This Area is owned and maintained by: City of Memphis. The land surrounding the lake and all non-fishing related activities are managed by the City of Memphis.
This Area is owned and maintained by: City of Lancaster. The land surrounding the lake and all non-fishing related activities are managed by the City of Lancaster.
About Fishes in Missouri
Missouri has more than 200 kinds of fish, more than are found in most neighboring states. Fishes live in water, breathe with gills, and have fins instead of legs. Most are covered with scales. Most fish in Missouri “look” like fish and could never be confused with anything else. True, lampreys and eels have snakelike bodies — but they also have fins and smooth, slimy skin, which snakes do not.