Common Wood Nymph

Media
Photo of a common wood-nymph butterfly
Scientific Name
Cercyonis pegala
Family
Nymphalidae (brushfooted butterflies)
Description

The overall color of adult common wood nymphs is tannish or grayish brown. The hindwing underside usually has a row of eyespots, but these spots may be missing or fewer in number in some individuals, particularly in the Ozarks.

Common wood nymphs have a variable appearance based on region. Some individuals are easily recognized by a yellow area on the forewing containing two eyespots; in our state, these have been called the western Missouri form. Males in the Salem Uplift form, found in the Ozarks, may have only one small eyespot in the yellow patch. In northern Missouri, the yellow area is often reduced to a yellow circle around each eyespot.

Caterpillars are covered with tiny hairs and are green with two narrow, yellowish lateral stripes along each side. A pair of small, pointed horns at the hind end are tinged with red or pink.

Common Name Synonyms
Goggle Eye; Grayling; Blue-Eyed Grayling
Size
Wingspan: 1¾–2¾ inches.
Where To Find
Common resident in northern and western Missouri; becoming very local in the Ozarks and apparently absent from the Mississippi Lowlands.
Adults fly from June into October in prairies, fields, and open woodland edges throughout the state. They typically rest on grasses, low shrubs, and sometimes tree trunks.
Grasses (in the family Poaceae) constitute the larval host plants. Adults may visit flowers, but they prefer tree sap and decaying fruit.
Life Cycle
There is just one brood, which has a long flight period, June–October. Males emerge about a week before females and live up to three weeks as adults, while females can live several months after emerging. Mating occurs early in the season, but females do not lay eggs until late in the flight season. Females lay eggs singly on grass leaves. Caterpillars hatch and overwinter without feeding. Young caterpillars may benefit by not being subjected to hot, dry summer weather.

People worldwide have admired the beauty of butterflies. Butterflies appear in paintings, sculpture, jewelry, photography, literature, and song. The dried butterflies themselves are often used decoratively.

Globally, humans have attributed spiritual, mythological, and superstitious significance to butterflies. A number of cultures have viewed butterflies as a symbol for the human soul, rebirth, or transformation. They have also been viewed as bad omens.

In nature, survival and reproduction are paramount activities. The compound eyes of butterflies provide them with a nearly 360 degree field of vision, helping them to evade predators (and also making them hard for humans to sneak up on). Most butterflies have color vision and can also see ultraviolet and infrared light. Seeing a wide color spectrum helps them to find food and host plants (survival) and identify mates (reproduction).

The eyespots on wood nymphs, their close relatives the satyrs, and many other butterflies and moths can function to misdirect predators. Often eyespots are positioned on the outer margins of butterfly wings. A predator, such as a bird, that pecks at the eyespots may destroy a bit of wing edge, but from the butterfly’s perspective, that is a much smaller loss than the butterfly’s real head would be.

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About Butterflies and Moths in Missouri
Butterflies, skippers, and moths belong to an insect order called the Lepidoptera — the "scale-winged" insects. These living jewels have tiny, overlapping scales that cover their wings like shingles. The scales, whether muted or colorful, seem dusty if they rub off on your fingers. Many butterflies and moths are associated with particular types of food plants, which their caterpillars must eat in order to survive.