Southern Redbelly Dace

Southern redbelly dace side view photo with black background
Scientific Name
Chrosomus erythrogaster (formerly Phoxinus erythrogaster)
Cyprinidae (minnows) in the order Cypriniformes (carps, minnows, and loaches)

The southern redbelly dace is a slender minnow with two dusky stripes separated by a broad golden or yellowish stripe along the side. The back is olive brown with scattered dark spots; the belly is white. The scales are very small, barely visible to the naked eye. Breeding males are brilliant red on the undersurface of the head and body, with the lower fin and undersurface near the tail lemon yellow.


Total length: 1½ to 2¾ inches; maximum length 3 inches.

Where To Find
image of Southern Redbelly Dace distribution map

One of the characteristic fishes of the Ozarks. Also occurs in northeastern Missouri, where its range extends northward into the prairie region in hills bordering the upper Mississippi River.

Occurs in small creeks and spring branches of the Ozarks where there is permanent flow of cool, clear water and a gravelly or sandy bottom. This species often schools with other minnows such as stonerollers and creek chubs.

Herbivorous, feeding primarily on algae and detritus with larval insects in lesser quantities.

Life Cycle

Individuals rarely live more than two years.

Dazzling breeding colors and a gentle disposition make the southern redbelly dace an excellent aquarium fish. Nongame fishes may be collected for aquarium purposes by the holder of a fishing permit, using techniques and in numbers specified for bait collecting in the Wildlife Code of Missouri.

What's a "dace"? It's a word that goes back to Middle English, where it became the name for a certain type of minnow, and then for just about any kind of small, darting minnow. It was derived from the word "dars" which was the Old French word for "dart."

Herbivorous minnows play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, as they provide a food-chain link between plants and larger aquatic predators.

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Similar Species
About Fishes in Missouri
Missouri has more than 200 kinds of fish, more than are found in most neighboring states. Fishes live in water, breathe with gills, and have fins instead of legs. Most are covered with scales. Most fish in Missouri “look” like fish and could never be confused with anything else. True, lampreys and eels have snakelike bodies — but they also have fins and smooth, slimy skin, which snakes do not.