Shellbark Hickory

Media
Illustration of shellbark hickory leaf and fruits.
Safety Concerns
Name
Edible
Scientific Name
Carya laciniosa
Family
Juglandaceae (walnuts)
Description

Shellbark hickory is a large tree with short, stout limbs, narrow crown, and shaggy bark.

Leaves are alternate, compound, 12–24 inches long, with 7 leaflets; each leaflet 5–9 inches long, oval, broadest above the middle, edges finely toothed, dark green.

Bark is similar to shagbark hickory: gray, separating into long, thin shaggy plates hanging loosely, with ends curving away from the trunk.

Twigs are stout, dark brown to reddish-orange; pores narrow.

Flowers April–May; male and female flowers separate on the same tree; male catkins in threes, female flowers 2–5, at the ends of branches.

Fruits September–October; nuts solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3, egg-shaped to nearly globe-shaped, depressed at the tip, 1–3 inches long; husk to ½ inch thick; light to dark brown, smooth to downy, hard, splitting easily along the 4 ribs at maturity.

Similar species: Compared to shagbark hickory, shellbark has larger leaves, more leaflets (5–9 instead of 3–5), larger nuts, and orange twigs.

Common Name Synonyms
Big Shagbark Hickory
Kingnut
Size

Height: 90 feet (to 130 feet); spread: 50 feet. The largest of the true hickories.

Where To Find
image of Shellbark Hickory Big Shagbark Hickory distribution map

Scattered widely throughout the state but absent from much of the Ozark division.

Found in the fertile bottomland soils of valleys along streams and in river floodplains, usually in partial sun. This species is becoming scarce because the rich, deep river bottom soils it grows in have been cleared to grow crops. It is a slow-growing tree that makes an excellent shade tree in moist soil.

Shellbark hickory bears the best-tasting Missouri hickory nuts, and these rich, nutritious fruits were an important food for Native Americans. They and European settlers used the inner bark for cane crafts such as basketry. The wood is used for snowshoes, barrel hoops, ladders, and tool handles.

Gray squirrels and other mammals relish the nuts, whose high fat content provides the energy needed for overwintering. Trees provide cover, nesting sites, and dens for a variety of wildlife, ranging from birds and opossums to tiny, well-camouflaged jumping spiders.

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About Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines in Missouri
There are no sharp dividing lines between trees, shrubs, and woody vines, or even between woody and nonwoody plants. “Wood” is a type of tissue made of cellulose and lignin that many plants develop as they mature — whether they are “woody” or not. Trees are woody plants over 13 feet tall with a single trunk. Shrubs are less than 13 feet tall, with multiple stems. Vines require support or else sprawl over the ground.