This summer may be a noisy one throughout parts of Southeast Missouri according to the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC). A brood of 13-year cicadas (Brood XXIII) that extends from Illinois to Louisiana will emerge in southeastern Missouri in mid-May.
Periodical cicadas pose no threat to people and minimal threats to trees. But early summer will be abuzz with sound where cicadas emerge, said Rob Lawrence, forest entomologist for the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC).
"In some places they make a pretty loud noise," Lawrence said.
Cicada nymphs will open half-inch holes in the soil surface as they emerge. Some may build three- to five-inch tall mud chimneys above their holes. Wingless nymphs will climb up on trees and other objects, shed their exoskeletons and become adults with wings. That leaves brownish paper shells that resemble shed skins attached to trees, porches and posts.
Adults will climb or fly into trees. Males will join together to form choruses to attract females. Or consider it a jam session with instruments. Male cicadas rapidly flex two drum-like structures in their abdomens called tymbals. The flexing produces a click, and the clicks come so fast it produces a raspy hum. They sing during the day with the loudest drone rising during the hottest part of the day.
Annual cicadas appear each year and their drone ebbs and flows in the tree tops. But annual cicadas appear later in the summer than the periodical variety, Lawrence said. Periodical cicadas will be prevalent in late May and June; annual cicadas appear in July and August.
Periodical cicadas are so named because the broods emerge in 13-year or 17-year cycles. This 13-year emergence is occurring in southeast Missouri and portions of other states. Another 17-year brood emergence is occurring in an area that extends from Iowa to Texas and includes western Missouri and eastern Kansas. However, the two broods are not expected to overlap.
Striking red eyes and blackish bodies distinguish periodical cicadas. Annual cicadas have greenish bodies, dark eyes and are about two inches long. Periodical cicadas are slightly smaller. Both types of cicadas include various species.
Periodical cicadas will not appear in all locations within the brood emergence area, Lawrence said. A field or yard that did not have trees 13 years ago would not have provided a place for females to lay eggs and for the nymphs to hatch and drop to the soil. Also, soil condition changes such as severe drought or construction disturbance could reduce the number of nymphs.
However, in some areas with favorable conditions, periodical cicadas could appear by the hundreds or even thousands. Such large, periodic emergences provide a feast for creatures that feed on insects. Wild turkeys will eat nymphs, so will fish where cicadas drop into the water. The large emergences are an evolutionary adaptation that lets the species survive by overwhelming predators with sheer numbers and a lengthy emergence cycle, Lawrence said.
Cicadas can affect trees. Females cut narrow slits in small branches and lay eggs in the slits. This can cause stress for limbs. Large, mature trees are generally not greatly affected. Although homeowners may notice some browned and broken branch tips, which is called flagging. Young trees can be harmed, and fruit trees can be stressed, because they have small branches favored by females for egg laying.
MDC foresters do not recommend using insecticides for cicadas. Small or newly-planted trees and shrubs can be covered with mesh and tied at the trunk. To reduce stress issues, homeowners should water young trees well during summer's hot and dry months, Lawrence said.
"Once they get out, they'll be singing in the trees for a while and make the racket," Lawrence said.
For more information on periodical cicadas, visit mdc.mo.gov/node/12097 or magicicada.org. Video from a 2011 periodic cicada emergence in central Missouri is available at youtube.com/watch?v=Ve3NvNy17yk.