Autumn sneezeweed grows in moist areas in meadows, prairies, ditches, and along streams. Like other sneezeweeds, it contains toxic, bitter substances, and grazing animals, including cattle, avoid eating it.
Sneezeweeds were used historically by Native Americans and pioneers as snuff. Inhaling the dried, powdered disk florets caused violent, prolonged sneezing, and people did this as a way of alleviating colds, stuffy noses, headache, and other maladies.
This “barn spider” is probably Neoscona crucifera, also called Hentz’s orbweaver and spotted orb weaver. It’s a widespread species that commonly builds its webs in woods and on the eaves of barns and other structures (including houses). The female takes down her web each morning, hides in cracks and corners during the day (as shown in this picture), and spins a new large, round web at dusk. This individual built her web next to a dusk-to-dawn porch light each night for several weeks one late summer, taking advantage of the host of flying insects attracted to the light.
Bastard toadflax is a perennial herb with yellowish-green foliage and smooth, upright stems. It grows and flowers on dry or rocky uplands, glades, and prairies, under the hottest conditions, May through July.
The flowers of bastard toadflax are whitish or cream-colored and grow in small, flattened clusters at the tops of stalks. The leaves are narrow, oblong, alternate, stalkless, to 1½ inches long, and yellowish green on both sides. The plant usually only grows to 1 foot high.
Beaked hawkweed is a very hairy, usually single-stemmed perennial herb. The flowerheads appear in open clusters and are borne at the tips of the stems. The basal leaves are broadly obovate, very hairy, and rough, ranging in length to 8 inches. The stem leaves are smaller, becoming sessile, and also very hairy.
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