Tickseed sunflower, Bidens aristosa, has many common names. Eleven different species of Bidens have been recorded for Missouri.
Doves, quail, pheasants, turkeys and numerous songbirds will use your sunflower fields in late summer, fall and winter.
Wildlife prefer the small black-seeded oil varieties of sunflower.
The sunflower variety most commonly grown for wildlife in Missouri is Peredovik. This variety generally requires 90 to 110 days to mature. It grows to 6 feet tall and produces seed weighing nearly 30 pounds per bushel.
Field location and size
For best wildlife utilization of sunflower plantings, the field should be located close to permanent winter cover.
Fields as small as 1 acre can be attractive to many wildlife species, but where possible, grow sunflowers in fields at least five acres in size. Larger fields help insure that there will be seed available throughout the winter months.
Fields are more attractive to mourning doves if a pond with bare shorelines is nearby. Doves also prefer tree or shrub rows nearby for roosting. A dead tree or two in or near the field will also be used as a perch by the doves before they land to feed.
Sunflowers perform best in average to dry soils. Sunflowers will grow on a wide variety of soils but usually perform poorly in wet soils.
Prepare a good seedbed by plowing and disking. If crop residues or weeds are not a problem, disking is adequate to prepare the seedbed. At this time, the fertilizer and a herbicide can be incorporated.
Proper fertilization will promote earlier flowering and increase yields. Best results will be obtained from application of fertilizer as recommended based on a current soil test. In the absence of a soil test, fertilizer should be applied at the rate of 200 pounds of 12-12-12 or equivalent per acre. Fields with adequate phosphorus and potash levels may only require application of nitrogen.
The best success with planting is achieved using a corn planter fitted with sunflower plates. Plant at the rate of 5 to 6 pounds of seed per acre (18,000 – 30,000 seeds per acre using oil type sunflowers). Row spacing should be 24-36 inches, with one seed every 12 to 16 inches in the row to allow good growth. Sunflowers can also be planted with grain drills, but drills should have some of the holes plugged to achieve correct row spacing, and seed crushing can be a problem with some models. Seed should be planted in moist soil at a depth of 1 to 1 1/2 inches. If a planter or drill is not available, the seed can be hand broadcast. Care should be taken to seed lightly, however. A dense seeding will result in plant competition and the production of smaller heads with fewer seeds for wildlife.
Sunflower seedlings can tolerate frost, so late April plantings are possible. For seedheads to mature prior to the dove season, it is best to plant before May 1st. Planting as late as early July is also possible. Although these late planted fields will not be mature in time for dove season, they still can provide good food for many other wildlife species. Good success has been achieved in years of adequate moisture with sunflowers planted as a double crop following wheat harvest. A no-till planter works well for this type of planting.
Although herbicide use is not necessary, it will help control grassy weed competition. This will create bare soil between the rows which is necessary to attract doves and reduce weed comptetion with the sunflowers .. To achieve desired results and avoid injury to the sunflowers, it is critical that managers read, understand, and follow the label for application rates and usage instructions. Following are some herbicides and application methods that help control grassy weeds in sunflower plantings:
Pre-plant incorporated herbicides: Treflan, Prowl 3.3 EC, Sonalan HFP, Dual Magnum. These must be tilled into the soil before planting.
Pre-emergence herbicides: Dual Magnum, Prowl 3.3 EC, Spartan 4F. These should be applied immediately after planting. Some may require rain for activation.
Post-emergence herbicides: Select 2 EC. These may be applied after sunflowers have germinated, but should be applied before grass weeds are too tall.
Clearfield sunflowers: Beyond 1 AS can provide good control of many grass and some broadleaf weeds in sunflower plantings, but should only be used on sunflowers labeled as Clearfield hybrids. Use of Beyond on non-Clearfield sunflowers can cause severe injury or death of plants.
Mechanical control will also help create the needed bare soil conditions. Light harrowing can be used soon after planting to control early weeds, but should not be done from the time of sunflower emergence until plants have reached the 4-6 leaf stage.
Once the sunflowers have reached the "four to six" leaf stage, they have developed a strong root system and can be harrowed or rotary hoed for weed control. Harrowing or rotary hoeing in the afternoon, when sunflowers are somewhat wilted, usually causes less damage than early in the day, when sunflowers are stiff and rigid. Later cultivation with inter-row implements should be shallow to avoid damaging the sunflower's fibrous root system.
Once the sunflowers reach 12 inches in height, the root system has spread out enough that cultivation will do more damage than good. Also, the sunflowers will effectively out-compete weeds as they reach a height that is too tall for cultivation.
In areas with moderate to high deer densities, heavy browsing can prevent sunflowers from producing seed, and sometimes even results in stand loss. Young sunflower plants and developing seed heads seem especially palatable to deer.
Where deer browsing is a problem, managers should consider the use of electric fencing systems designed to repel deer and deter field damage. Reduction of deer populations through legal harvest should be considered as well.
MDC protects and manages Missouri's fish, forest, and wildlife resources. We also facilitate your participation in resource-management activities, and we provide opportunities for you to use, enjoy and learn about nature.