2013 Turkey Outlook
Two Years of Improved Production is Good News for Turkey Hunters
Improved turkey production in 2011 was a welcomed sight after the poor hatches that plagued Missouri from 2007–2010. The good hatch in 2011, along with an increased number of jakes (one-year-old male turkeys) in 2012, will result in more 2-year-old gobblers in 2013. Because 2-year-old gobblers are generally more vocal and willing to come to hunters’ calls, this is good news for turkey hunters looking forward to this year’s spring season.
Turkey production in 2012 was improved as well, coming in 42 percent above the previous 5-year average and 21 percent above the 10-year average. Missouri’s turkey population hasn’t experienced two consecutive years of production comparable to 2011 and 2012 in more than a decade. These hatches should bolster turkey numbers throughout much of Missouri. Because hatch success drives turkey abundance, continued improvements in production should increase turkey numbers in the Show-Me State.
Missouri’s turkey population has undergone a transition during the past several decades. In the 1970s and 80s, when the recently-restored population was expanding rapidly, people often reported seeing flocks of turkeys that numbered well into the hundreds. During that time, production was extremely high as turkeys took advantage of vacant, highly suitable habitat.
But a basic ecological principle eventually caught up with Missouri’s turkeys. As wildlife populations grow, factors that limit their size exert ever-greater influence. Habitats become crowded, predators find easy pickings, and disease spreads more quickly. By increasing mortality, decreasing production, or doing both, each limiting factor puts the brakes on an expanding population. Missouri’s wild turkeys are no exception. Although the hatches of 2011 and 2012 should increase turkey numbers, and there’s potential for continued growth, it’s not likely that turkey numbers will increase to the peak populations observed following restoration. Wild turkey populations are dynamic, and turkey reproductive success is rarely stable. In the future, ebbing and flowing of turkey numbers can be expected, as this is the nature of the species.
A Comprehensive Approach to Wild Turkey Management
The Conservation Department takes a comprehensive approach to managing the state’s turkey population. In addition to analyzing harvest data, brood surveys and wildlife observation surveys are conducted each year to monitor trends in turkey production and abundance. Additionally, the Conservation Department surveys thousands of hunters each year to obtain information about hunter opinions, success, and satisfaction. Its Wild Turkey Harvest Management Plan guides the Department’s approach to turkey management. Along with management objectives, such as ensuring the long-term well being of the turkey population and allowing harvest within sustainable limits, the plan outlines criteria that are evaluated each year to determine harvest regulations.
The Department sets spring turkey season to begin after a considerable proportion of breeding has occurred. Due to this timing and the fact that male turkeys represent 99 percent of the harvest, spring hunting does not limit turkey population growth. Although a portion of the fall harvest consists of female turkeys, current fall harvest levels are within acceptable limits. In 2012, fall firearms hunters harvested about 8,500 turkeys, which is considerably lower than the harvest of nearly 45,000 turkeys during the spring season. Each year, biologists monitor both harvests, and make changes to regulations when appropriate.
Both the Department’s Regulations Committee and the Conservation Commission review Turkey regulations annually. Decisions are based upon both science and public input. The Department strives to ensure the well being of the state’s turkey population and to provide world-class turkey hunting.
Missouri’s Wild Turkey Population Remains Strong
Missouri is recognized as offering some of the nation’s best turkey hunting. Each year, the state’s turkey harvest ranks among the highest in the country. The improved production of 2011 should result in an increase in the number of 2-year-old gobblers during the 2013 spring season. The hatch of 2012 should continue this trend into 2014. Missouri’s turkey population remains strong, offering hunters a tremendous opportunity to enjoy one of the state’s most cherished natural resources.