Slippery Elm

Ulmus rubra
Ulmaceae (elms)

A medium-sized tree with a long trunk dividing into large branches that form a spreading, open, flat-topped crown.

Leaves alternate, simple, 4–8 inches long, broadest near the middle; margin with smaller teeth along the lower side of the larger teeth; tip with a long, narrow point; base uneven. Upper surface dark green, very rough, with stiff hairs; lower surface paler, with soft hairs.

Bark reddish-brown to gray, grooves shallow, ridges long, flattened; inner bark with a sticky sap, slippery when chewed.

Twigs stout, gray, densely hairy, rough; smooth with age; inner surface slippery when chewed; buds dark purplish- to reddish-brown, hairy.

Flowers February–April, before the leaves, in dense clusters on short stalks; flower about ¼ inch long, green, hairy, petals absent.

Fruits April–June, in clusters; fruit ¼–¾ inch long, seed surrounded by a papery wing; wing reddish-brown, broadest in the middle, notched at the top, smooth; seed solitary, flattened.

Height: to 60 feet.
Habitat and conservation: 
Occurs in dry upland or rocky woods and along streams. Slippery elm is a water-loving tree and reaches its largest size on moist, rich soils on lower slopes, stream banks, river terraces and bottomlands. Although rarely cultivated, slippery elm is an attractive, moderately fast-growing, relatively long-lived tree, providing excellent, heavy shade. Unfortunately, like American elm, it is susceptible to Dutch elm disease and elm phloem necrosis, both of which are fatal.
Distribution in Missouri: 
Except for scattered counties in the Ozarks, slippery elm is found in almost every county in the state.
Human connections: 
Tea from the inner bark was used by Native Americans and by settlers for ailments including sore throats, coughs, stomach ulcers and upset stomach, and for treating external wounds. The inner bark is still used in some sore throat preparations. Also used for lumber and furniture.
Ecosystem connections: 
As insubstantial as they might seem, the seeds are eaten by birds, rabbits, opossums, squirrels and other rodents. Deer browse the leaves and twigs in the spring. Insects such as borers, leaf miners, caterpillars and scales eat slippery elm, too, and insectivorous birds eat them.
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